Was the Joseph Story Written con Egypt During the Persian Period?

Was the Joseph Story Written con Egypt During the Persian Period?

Egyptologists have long searched the details of the Joseph story for clues onesto when the story was written. Does the Jewish experience as per sparpagliamento community mediante Egypt hold the clue preciso the story’s origin?

Egyptology and Bible Studies

From its very beginning, the field of Egyptology was interested, if not obsessed, with Egypt’s role sopra the Hebrew Bible. The wealth of Egyptian records vis a vis the dearth of contemporary Israelite or Canaanite superiore-biblical records, encouraged Egyptologists puro provide the historical preparazione for the holy scriptures.

Exemplifying this obsession is the New York Public Library bibliography, listing an astounding 182 works on Egypt and the Bible by the year 1924. Another 97 works were listed by 1941. Among these are the works of notable Egyptologists such as,

  • Emmanuel de Rouge (1811-1872, France),
  • Francois Chabas (1817-1882, France),
  • Wilhelm Spiegelberg (1826-1890, Germany),
  • (Henri) Edouard Naville (1844-1926, Switzerland),
  • Gaston Maspero (1846-1916, France),
  • Wilhelm Max Muller (1862-1919, Germany),
  • Sir Alan Gardiner (1879-1963, England).

The main objective of these studies was puro verify the biblical accounts. This was neither masked nor veiled but explicitly proclaimed per such titles as Abraham Yahuda’s: The Accuracy of the Bible. The Stories of Joseph, the Exodus and Genesis Confirmed and Illustrated by Egyptian Monuments and Language.

Joseph per (which) Egypt?

Considering its Egyptian settings and the many Egyptian elements per the narrative, the story of Josephs’ descent sicuro Egypt and his subsequent ascent esatto Egyptian governance has been one of the major focal points of inter-disciplinary studies of the Hebrew Bible. Many studies have highlighted the genuine ancient Egyptian aspects mediante it and provided parallels puro the names, titles, customs and motifs – all taken from the vast records of ancient Egypt.

However, the exact historical setting of the composition of the Joseph story continues puro elude scholars as they debate its connection onesto Egypt of the imperial eta durante the second millennium BCE or puro the much later, Saite and Ptolemaic periods in the late first millennium BCE. Two important studies exemplify the range of approaches.

New Kingdom Egypt (1550-1070) – Jozef Vergote

In his 1959 study, the Flemish Egyptologist, Jozef Vergote (1910-1992), summarized and confirmed the broad consensus that the Joseph story reflected an intimate knowledge of Egypt during its imperial period, known as the New Kingdom. During this period, Egypt controlled considerable regions in the Levant, and saw the integration of several Semitic-named individuals into Egyptian administrative offices. Identifying per proto-type for Joe was therefore per plausible ispirazione.

Saite Egypt (664-525) – Donald Redford

Two decades later, per study by the Canadian Egyptologist and archaeologist, Donald Redford (b. 1934), revolutionized our view of Joseph’s Egypt through verso critical and comprehensive study of the Egyptian “coloring” in the Joseph’s story. Redford made use of all Ancient Egyptian sources, without confining his research esatto New Kingdom Egypt or earlier periods. Sopra doing so, Redford noted that some Egyptian elements mediante the Joseph story appeared quite late con the Egyptian supremazia, and although they could have represented earlier times as well, the critical mass of his comparanda pointed preciso verso date con the first millennium.

This was no doubt also the result of Redford’s tete-a-tete with contemporary views on biblical redaction and compilation as they were perceived con Europe, rather than in the US.

Customs from a Saite Egyptian Context

Redford’s study taccuino that many of the so called Egyptian practices durante the Joseph story were datingranking.net/it/mennation-review/ not exclusive preciso Egypt and could also be found in other Ancient Near Eastern civilizations. Such were the trade caravans, the presence of Asiatic slaves, traditions and titles associated with the royal capable, etc. Nevertheless, Redford focuses attention on some elements con the Joseph story that are purely Egyptian:

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